Â Unfortunately there are terrible side effects caused by psychiatric drugs (1). These side effects can cause artifacts in the search for biological markers, unfortunately. Biologial markers research should be done on patients who have never been given psychiatric drugs.
Â A lot of studies have implicated aromatic amino acids in psychiatric diseases (2).
"Tryptophan is also a very important amino acid because
two hormones, serotonin and melatonin, are synthesized
Wirginia Krzy?ciak* (2)*Department of Medical Diagnostics, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Pharmacy Faculty, KrakÃ³w, Poland
Â The entire article can be seen online ar Ref. 3. The article is a gem, but it is very technical.
majority, around 94 % of tryptophan , is degraded
"Kynurenines, when generated in excessive amounts,
mostly demonstrate neurotoxic and neurodegenerative
Â Tryptophan metabolism appears to be abnormal in Alzheimer's disease (4).
Â Ref. 5 implicates tryptophan metabolites in depression.Â
Â Amino acids and other natural substances are used as treatments in orthomolecular psychiatry, sometimes called "psychodietetics" (6). Ref. 7 provides more information. My own website is Ref. 8.
Â It appears that toxic metabolites of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway cause the various forms of mental illness. Unfortunately psychiatric drugs cause very bad side effects including weight gain, diabetes, tremors, Parkisonism, etc. (1).
Therefore the best treatments are orthomolecular. Diets and supplements are used. However, psychosocial treatments do no harm.
1. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2012 Jan;5(4):201-7. Monitoring metabolic side effects when initiating treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medication.
Weissman E, Jackson C, Schooler N, Goetz R, Essock S.
5. Maes M, Leonard BE, Myint AM, Kubera M, Verkerk R (2011) The new '5-HT' hypothesis of depression: Cell-mediated immune activaction induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), both of which contribute to the onset of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35: 702-21.
Â These images are presented courtesy ofÂ Public Domain Clipart.